# Testing methodology
This section of the magma guide discusses the most common methodology used to detect whether access to websites is being blocked in a specific region or country.
# Blocking of websites
To determine whether websites are being blocked, researchers and Internet freedom activists prepare “test-lists” (machine-readable CSV files that include URLs). Test-lists are not randomly compiled website URLs. Rather, they are a compilation of websites tailored to a specific country’s social/political context. Often these websites are selected because of their likelihood of being censored or blocked in a given region/country.
Once prepared, these test-lists are then run through software to conduct network measurements. The software “tests” whether access to these websites is being restricted or blocked, and if so, how it is occurring. Important data such as network errors, DNS settings, DNS entries, HTTP codes, and HTTP headers may be collected to assist in determining the specific blocking method that is being used. Further information about this type of testing methodology can be found here: ONI Methodology, Tools, and Data FAQ.
Some of the most commonly used test-lists can be found on Citizen Lab.
# Citizen Lab test-lists
Citizen Lab's URL testing lists are a compilation of test-lists divided by country code. These local lists are designed specifically for each country by regional experts. Their content represents a wide range of categories at the local and regional levels, and is often in local languages. In countries where Internet censorship has been reported, these lists also include many of the websites that have allegedly been blocked. In addition to these local lists, a global list also exists made up of a wide range of internationally relevant and popular websites, including sites with content that is perceived to be provocative or objectionable. Most of the websites on the global list are in English. Go to Citizen Lab test-lists repository for a descriptive tree view list of the various available test-lists.
. ├── README.md Information about the test-lists repository ├── lists The test-lists directory one file per country code │ ├── <cc>.csv Country Code (cc) specific test-list files │ ├── global.csv Global test-list specific file │ ├── 00-LEGEND-category_codes.csv Old category codes legend of the test-lists │ ├── 00-LEGEND-country_codes.csv Country codes legend of the test-lists │ ├── 00-LEGEND-new_category_codes.csv Current category codes legend of the test-lists ├── output Directory used by scripts └── scripts Various scripts and tools
# Updating an existing test-list for a given country
In general, to learn more about the test-list methodology and how to contribute URLs for testing, see the excellent guide: OONI - The test list methodology. The website provides a fairly extensive overview of the various methodologies and processes.
To add URL(s) to a specific country's test-list, follow this step-by-step process:
- Find the country code for the country whose test-list you are interested in updating.
Note that all test-lists are located in the following directory. Every country code CSV file corresponds to a specific country's existing test-list. Review the country code legend file if you are not sure which country code corresponds with your country of interest.
Once you have located your country's test-list, download it by clicking the
Open the file downloaded (filename
XX.csv) with your favorite spreadsheet tool (for instance LibreOffice Calc and use as separator options
Separated by Comma).
You should now be able to see the test-list for your selected country. Make new additions at the end of the spreadsheet file by adding entries to the required fields below. Please make sure to verify the URLs you are submitting have not already been listed (to do this, use the Find option or the keyboard shortcut
Ctrl + F). Every new entry should contain the following six fields (note only the first four are required):
url: (Required) the URL you would like to submit to the test-list.
category_code: (Required) the category of content the URL entry should fall under. (see all category codes)
category_description: (Required) the description of the selected category. (see all category descriptions)
date_added: (Required) the date you submitted each entry (usually today).
source: (Optional) the source of the entry (this can be a name or anonymous).
notes: (Optional) any additional comments you would like to use to describe the entry.
Once you have implemented your changes, save the file with the same file name as CSV file format (
.csv). Note: your changes have not yet been submitted.
Open the same test-list URL as in step 2 above, and click on the edit this file button (then pencil button). You will be required to log in to submit changes. You may use your pre-existing credentials, create a new GitHub user account, or use the multi-user account
Remove all visible lines and drag-drop your file to the
Edit filesection. You should only be able to see the contents of your file. Verify your changes by checking the
View your proposed changes and add a short description of your work in
Propose file change. When you are ready, press the
Propose file changebutton to submit your change.
Congratulations! You have just submitted a pull request with your proposed changes to the test-lists repository. Now simply hold tight until your pull request gets reviewed and implemented.
# Open and save CSV files
When preparing and adding to these test-lists, it will also be important for you to know how to open and save CSV files. Note that you can open (import) CSV files of test-lists with a spreadsheet application such as LibreOffice. Detailed documentation on how to open and save CSV files in LibreOffice can be found in: LibreOffice Help - Opening and Saving Text CSV Files
# Further resources
- Guideline for Test Lists Researchers by Netalitica